COVER + SUMMARIES | 0-1 |
INTRODUCTION | 1-1 |
FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF TRANSFER | 2-1 |
2.1. Signal flow observed relative to reference planes | 2-2 |
2.1.1. Signal definition in paired conductor links | 2-4 |
2.1.2. Equivalent load models | 2-6 |
2.1.3. Equivalent source models | 2-7 |
2.1.4. Interconnection transformation of waves | 2-8 |
2.1.5. Conclusions | 2-9 |
2.2. Blackbox representation of multi-port networks | 2-10 |
2.2.1. Multi-port matrix parameters | 2-11 |
2.2.2. Multi-port matrix properties | 2-13 |
2.2.3. Multi-port matrix reduction algorithm | 2-15 |
2.2.4. Application of multi-port transfer matrices in circuit simulators | 2-16 |
2.2.5. Conclusions | 2-17 |
2.3. Two-port transfer parameters | 2-18 |
2.3.1. Two-port matrix parameters | 2-18 |
2.3.2. Two-port virtual circuit parameters | 2-20 |
2.3.3. Conclusions | 2-24 |
EXTRACTION OF TRANSFER PARAMETERS | 3-1 |
3.1. One-port model extraction methods for linear synthesis | 3-2 |
3.1.1. Elementary extraction methods of analytical transfer functions | 3-2 |
3.1.2. Extraction methods for equivalent circuit elements | 3-4 |
3.1.3. Extraction of adequate photo-diode impedance-models | 3-5 |
3.1.4. Conclusions | 3-8 |
3.2. Two-port extraction methods for transistor models | 3-10 |
3.2.1. Virtual circuit parameters as device representation method | 3-11 |
3.2.2. Extraction of transistor parameters using Taylor series expansion | 3-14 |
3.2.3. Extraction of parameters with delay using Taylor series expansion | 3-16 |
3.2.4. Conclusions | 3-17 |
3.3. Discussion on commonly used transistor models | 3-18 |
3.3.1. Discussion on base resistance versus emitter inductance | 3-18 |
3.3.2. Discussion on current transport function vs. diffusion capacitance | 3-19 |
3.3.3. Conclusions | 3-22 |
FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF FEEDBACK | 4-1 |
4.1. Superposition analysis of feedback amplifiers | 4-3 |
4.1.1. Superposition model parameters | 4-3 |
4.1.2. Superposition flow parameters | 4-7 |
4.1.3. Example of the extraction of superposition parameters | 4-9 |
4.1.4. Conclusions | 4-10 |
4.2. Superposition parameter calculation | 4-11 |
4.2.1. Calculation of loop gain, forward gain and feedback factor | 4-11 |
4.2.2. Calculation of asymptotic and virtual gain and forward leakage | 4-14 |
4.2.3. Conclusions | 4-15 |
4.3. Loop gain estimation using single-cut methods | 4-16 |
4.3.1. One-cut loop gain estimation using two-port parameters | 4-17 |
4.3.2. One-cut loop gain estimation using open voltage and current gain | 4-20 |
4.3.3. Conclusions | 4-22 |
4.4. Loop gain representation by poles and zeros | 4-23 |
4.4.1. The purpose of pole-zero patterns | 4-23 |
4.4.2. Strategy of pole-zero extraction methods | 4-23 |
4.4.3. Practical demonstration of the pole-zero extractor | 4-25 |
4.4.4. Interpretation of pole-zero patterns | 4-27 |
4.4.5. Conclusions | 4-28 |
4.5. Loop gain deflation algorithms | 4-29 |
4.5.1. Manual deflation using pseudo delay | 4-29 |
4.5.2. Automated deflation by pole-zero cancellation | 4-31 |
4.5.3. Automated deflation using dominant singularities | 4-32 |
4.5.4. Automated overall deflation | 4-34 |
4.5.5. Conclusions | 4-34 |
WIDEBAND FEEDBACK SYNTHESIS | 5-1 |
5.1. Aperture analysis of feedback amplifiers | 5-3 |
5.1.1. Definition of virtual-aperture and effective-aperture | 5-3 |
5.1.2. Bandwidth analysis | 5-6 |
5.1.3. Bandpass analysis | 5-9 |
5.1.4. Conclusions | 5-12 |
5.2. Compensation techniques for feedback amplifiers | 5-13 |
5.2.1. Profiled compensation techniques in the forward amplifier | 5-14 |
5.2.2. Profiled compensation techniques with intertwined solutions | 5-16 |
5.2.3. Phantom compensation techniques in the feedback network | 5-18 |
5.2.4. Conclusions | 5-21 |
5.3. Compensation synthesis for feedback amplifiers | 5-22 |
5.3.1. Bandpass synthesis | 5-22 |
5.3.2. Compensation algorithm | 5-25 |
5.3.3. Examples of loops with full compensation | 5-29 |
5.3.4. Examples of loops with dominant compensation | 5-33 |
5.3.5. Conclusions | 5-35 |
FEEDBACK DESIGN EXAMPLE: LIGHTWAVE RECEIVERS | 6-1 |
6.1. Lightwave receiver configurations | 6-2 |
6.1.1. Conventional receiver front-ends | 6-3 |
6.1.2. Improved receivers with current-current feedback | 6-4 |
6.1.3. Implementation of receivers using current-current feedback | 6-6 |
6.2. Iterative synthesis focused on maximal bandwidth | 6-8 |
6.2.1. Quantifying parasitic effects using circuit stripping techniques | 6-9 |
6.2.2. Cumulative quantification of parasitics using pole-zero techniques | 6-12 |
6.2.3. Bandwidth performance of current-current feedback receivers | 6-13 |
6.3. Iterative synthesis focused on minimal noise | 6-14 |
6.3.1. Noise optimization in the absence of tuning | 6-15 |
6.3.2. Noise tuning in absence of overall feedback | 6-16 |
6.3.3. Noise tuning in combination with overall feedback | 6-20 |
6.3.4. Noise performance of current-current feedback receivers | 6-21 |
6.3.5. The role of noise measurements in an iterative synthesis | 6-22 |
6.4. Conclusions | 6-24 |
FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF NOISE | 7-1 |
7.1. Definitions of signal and noise spectra | 7-3 |
7.1.1. Spectral identification of random signals | 7-4 |
7.1.2. Spectral correlation between random signals | 7-6 |
7.1.3. Analytical noise analysis using complex noise spectra | 7-7 |
7.2. Blackbox representation of noisy multi-port networks | 7-8 |
7.2.1. Description of multi-port circuits including deterministic sources | 7-8 |
7.2.2. Description of noisy multi-ports using correlation matrices | 7-10 |
7.2.3. Reduction of correlation matrix dimension of noisy multi-ports | 7-12 |
7.2.4. Application of noise correlation matrices in circuit simulators. | 7-13 |
7.2.5. Generalized thermal noise theorem for multi-port networks | 7-14 |
7.2.6. Conclusions | 7-15 |
7.3. Two-port noise parameters | 7-17 |
7.3.1. Matrix noise parameters, dedicated to two-ports | 7-17 |
7.3.2. Conventional spot noise parameters for two-ports | 7-21 |
7.3.3. Autonomous noise parameters for two-ports. | 7-24 |
7.3.4. Conclusions | 7-26 |
LIGHTWAVE BASED ELECTRICAL NOISE MEASUREMENTS | 8-1 |
8.1. The art of measuring noise | 8-3 |
8.1.1. Pitfalls while measuring noise | 8-3 |
8.1.2. Accuracy limits when measuring noise | 8-4 |
8.1.3. Basic definitions | 8-5 |
8.2. Multi-level noise source with lightwave noise-tee | 8-6 |
8.2.1. Circuit diagram of a noise-tee | 8-6 |
8.2.2. Variable noise source based on a matched noise-tee configuration | 8-7 |
8.2.3. Output noise level of a matched noise-tee configuration | 8-8 |
8.2.4. Output impedance variation of a noise-tee configuration | 8-9 |
8.2.5. Conclusions | 8-11 |
8.3. Calibration of synthetic noise | 8-12 |
8.3.1. Definition of (spectral) noise-current ratio for synthetic noise | 8-12 |
8.3.2. Calibration of synthetic noise with calibrated noise sources | 8-13 |
8.3.3. Calibration of synthetic noise, with shot-noise | 8-15 |
8.3.4. Transformation of calibrated noise to arbitrary reference planes | 8-21 |
8.3.5. Mathematical halving of the noise-tee | 8-23 |
8.3.6. Conclusions | 8-26 |
8.4. Noise level measurements using matched sources | 8-27 |
8.4.1. Basic principles and definitions | 8-27 |
8.4.2. Extraction of input noise level using hot/cold noise sources | 8-29 |
8.4.3. Extraction of input noise level using multi-level noise sources | 8-29 |
8.4.4. Measurement of lightwave receiver noise | 8-32 |
8.4.5. Alternative lightwave receiver noise measurements | 8-36 |
8.4.6. Conclusions | 8-38 |
8.5. Noise parameter measurements | 8-39 |
8.5.1. State-of-the-art measurement methods | 8-39 |
8.5.2. Proposed improvements to state-of-the-art noise measurements | 8-43 |
8.5.3. Input noise measurements for mismatched source admittances | 8-45 |
8.5.4. Extraction of device noise-parameters | 8-47 |
8.5.5. Extraction of input noise level for arbitrary source admittances | 8-49 |
8.5.6. Conclusions | 8-50 |
LIGHTWAVE SYNTHETIC NOISE GENERATION | 9-1 |
9.1. Basic principles of synthetic noise generation | 9-4 |
9.1.1. Delayed self-homodyne principle with FM modulation | 9-4 |
9.1.2. Example of a practical synthetic noise generator | 9-7 |
9.1.3. Conclusions | 9-10 |
9.2. Practical analysis of synthetic noise generation | 9-11 |
9.2.1. Analysis of the spectral envelope of the synthetic noise | 9-11 |
9.2.2. Spectral ripple reduction by noise injection | 9-14 |
9.2.3. Power analysis of synthetic noise | 9-20 |
9.2.4. Statistical analysis of synthetic noise | 9-22 |
9.2.5. Conclusions | 9-25 |
9.3. Theoretical analysis of synthetic noise generation | 9-26 |
9.3.1. Time domain analysis of the synthetic noise signal | 9-26 |
9.3.2. Incoherence analysis | 9-29 |
9.3.3. Spectral analysis far above incoherence threshold | 9-34 |
9.3.4. Statistical analysis far above incoherence threshold | 9-38 |
9.3.5. Conclusions | 9-39 |
APPENDICES | @-1 |
A. Transformation rules for two-port parameters | @-1 |
B. Algorithms for overdetermined matrix divisions | @-2 |
C. Algorithm for polynomial curve fits | @-5 |
D. Algorithm for rational curve fits | @-6 |
E. Algorithm for rational magnitude fit | @-8 |
F. Algorithm for rational delay fit | @-9 |
G. Algorithm for weighed polynomial division | @-10 |
H. Algorithm for dominant deflation of transfer order | @-11 |
I. Bessel, Butterworth and Chebyshev transfer functions | @-13 |
J. Algorithm for feedback compensation synthesis | @-16 |
K. Definitions of spectra and integral transformations | @-18 |
L. Algorithm for extraction of equivalent input noise | @-22 |
M. Noise parameter extraction using hot and cold sources | @-24 |
N. Noise parameter extraction using paired hot and cold sources | @-27 |
O. Acknowledgments | @-29 |
P. Bibliography of the author | @-30 |
References | @-31 |
Index | @-37 |